Download 50 Big Ideas You Really Need to Know by Ben Dupre PDF

By Ben Dupre

50 colossal rules you actually need to grasp is a concise, available and well known consultant to the vital tenets of Western inspiration. each vital precept of philosophy, faith, politics, economics, the humanities and the sciences is profiled in a sequence of brief illustrated essays, complemented through an informative array of timelines and field positive aspects.
Platonism, The Soul, Communism, Aristotelianism, religion, Fascism, The Golden rule, Atheism, Racism, Altruism, Secularism, Feminism, Pluralism, Fundamentalism, Islamism, Liberty, Creationism, Capitalism, Toleration, conflict, Globalization, Scepticism, accountability, Classicism, cause, Utopia, Romanticism, Punishment, Liberalism, Modernism, Materialism, Democracy, Surrealism, Relativism, Conservatism, Censorship, Utilitarianism, Imperialism, immense Bang, Existentialism, Nationalism, Chaos, Evil, Social agreement, Evolution, destiny, Republicanism, Relativity, Quantum mechanics, Gaia.

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Nature’s stern discipline enjoins mutual help at least as often as warfare. ’ Friedrich Nietzsche, 1888 Looking after one’s own An explanation of this puzzle begins to emerge when we recognize that it does not necessarily have to be the ‘offspring of the benevolent parents’ that carry altruistic tendencies into the next generation: it may be sufficient for cousins and other relatives to do so. In other words, it is not the survival of an altruistic individual that matters, provided that the genetic material that contributed to its altruistic disposition survives, and this can be achieved through relatives that share some of the same genes.

Faith, soul and other central ideas of religion are fundamental in understanding how people judge the value and meaning of life. At the same time, positions taken in opposition to religion, such as atheism and secularism, have forged new and distinctive perspectives on the world. The American humorist Will Rogers’s joke about communism being like prohibition – ‘it’s a good idea but it won’t work’ – is at least half wrong on both counts: for better or for worse, communism is probably the most successful political ideology ever to be planned on paper and realized in fact.

The French novelist Victor Hugo understood the combination of substance and timing that come together to form an idea that really shakes things up – that is destined to be big. But bigness can come in many guises: big and beautiful, big and ugly, big and scary. Ideas can be big in all these ways and so may be admirable, despicable or intimidating. Ideas of all these kinds are represented here. The aim of philosophy, Adam Smith suggested, is ‘to lay open the concealed connections that unite the various appearances of nature’.

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