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By Mark Donohue

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3 Vowel sequences The following clusters of vowels have been found to occur morpheme internally: Table 1. a'ßa? na ika] [go 1 n{,i ? 4 Glottal stops The sequences of vowels exemplified in table 1 above may be compared with the corresponding forms that exhibit a medial glottal stop: Table 2. Vowel clusters interrupted by a glottal stop a'a a'e a'i a'o a'u ma'a 'yawn' ba'e 'fruit' ba'i 'previous' ha'o 'nail' gora'u 'egg' 24 Chapter 2 e'a e'e le 'ale 'ana 'today' le'e 'urine' ne ι 'flesh' i'a i'e 11 eu e'o nde'u 'not want' I'O 1'U menu ι 'fast' o'a o'e O'l o'o o'u helo'a 'cook' ko'e 'stroke' lo'ia 'ginger' wo ou 'new' moro u 'drink' u'a u'e U'l u'o uu tudu'a 'slave' bu'ea 'crocodile' wuwu'i wetu'o 'wash hands' 'star' lu'u 'tear' The lack of glottal stops following /i/, the high front member of the vowel inventory, is conspicuous.

The local word for a blacksmith is Pande tutu or Tuka kabali, but these terms are never used as a means of reference for the island chain or its language. The closest the Tukang Besi come to an endonym is to change the pronunciation to fit their phonological system, making it [tukambesi]. Note that this is distinct from the loan form of the word 'tukang besi', meaning blacksmith, which has been borrowed into the language (alongside Pande tutu and Tuka kabali) as [tukambasi]. Other names used by the people to refer to themselves and their language varieties include: Wakatobi Bahasa Pulo Pogau Ka'umbeda Pogau Wanse Pogau Kahedupa Pogau Tomia Pogau Binongko Pogau Daoa (WAnci, KAledupa, TOmea, Binongko) (island language) (from the folk etymology of the proto-word for 'fact') (for Wanci) (for Kaledupa) (for Tomea) (for Binongko) (trade language used in the market between people from different dialect groups) The word for 'speech, language', pogau, has the additional connotation that is not official, proper, or refined (halus in Malay), while the loanword bahasa has no such connotations.

In elicited sentences speakers are reluctant to accept verb forms that display both the -[urn]- infix and an object suffix, yet in real (unguarded) speech this is common (chapter 7). 0 Derivation of verbs without the verbalising prefix he-. Whilst many cases of verbs derived from an associated noun through prefixing with he- are common, there are many cases in normal speech of 'nouns' being used as verbs simply by the addition of subject prefixes (chapters 4 and 11). As this grammar is descriptive, rather than prescriptive, the forms treated here represent what was actually heard.

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