By Neil Pearce Centre for Public Health Research Massey University
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Extra resources for A Short Introduction to Epidemiology 2nd Edition, 2005
Eur Resp J 6: 1455-61. Wilkinson RG (1992). Income distribution and life expectancy. Br Med J 304: 165-8. Yen IH, Kaplan GA (1999). Neighbourhood social environment and risk of death: multilevel evidence from the Alameda County Study. Am J Epidemiol 149: 898907. Pearce N, Beasley R, Burgess C, Crane J (1998). Asthma epidemiology: principles and methods. New York: Oxford University Press. Pearce N, Douwes J, Beasley R (2000). The rise and rise of asthma: a new paradigm for the new millenium? J Epidemiol Biostat 2000; 5: 5-16.
The Level of Measurement of Exposure A third additional axis of classification involves the level of measurement of exposure. g. g. age, gender). 3. g. routine records, jobexposure-matrices, questionnaires, biological samples). 2: Continuous Outcome Measures of cross-sectional studies in which the disease outcome is dichotomous. g. having or not having hypertension). g. g. the prevalence of hypertension). g. g. blood pressure). Since these measurements are taken at a particular point in time, such studies are often referred to as cross-sectional studies.
Principles of multilevel modelling. Int J Epidemiol 2000; 29: 158-67. Greenland S (2001). Ecologic versus individual-level sources of bias in ecologic estimates of contextual health effects, Int J Epidemiol 30: 1343-50. Beaglehole R, Bonita R, Kjellstrom T (1993). Basic epidemiology. Geneva: WHO. Blakeley T, Woodward AJ (2000). Ecological effects in multi-level studies. J Epidemiol Comm Health 54: 367-74. Greenland S (2002). A review of multilevel theory for ecologic analyses. Stat Med 21: 389-95.