By Vojkan Vidojkovic, J. van der Tang, Arjan Leeuwenburgh, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
This ebook investigates strategies, advantages, boundaries, and prices linked to multi-standard operation of RF front-ends and their skill to conform to variable radio environments. subsequent, it highlights the optimization of RF front-ends to permit greatest functionality inside of a undeniable energy price range, whereas focusing on complete integration. ultimately, the e-book investigates percentages for low-voltage, low-power circuit topologies in CMOS know-how.
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Additional resources for Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
Since the set of front-end building blocks is available, the last issue that has to be considered before synthesis of a generic front-end architecture is their order. The following discussion highlights this issue. 1, the received wanted signal is most likely accompanied by strong interferers. In order to prevent gain desensitization in the following building blocks, it is recommendable to apply filtering immediately after the antenna. Strong interferers have to be suppressed on the positive as well as on the negative frequencies in the RF signal spectrum.
10. Xlo (ω ), Xif (ω ) and Xiff (ω ) are the amplitude spectra of the complex signals. 1. 10 Frequency down-conversion function in the frequency domain with an ideal QLO 28 CHAPTER 2. FRONT-END ARCHITECTURE SELECTION In Fig. 10(c) the amplitude spectrum of the down-converted signal Xif (ω ) is presented. 30)). Xwd (ω ) is located at ωif , while Xid (ω ) is located at −ωif . Still, it is necessary to reject the image signal Xid (ω ). In order to reject the image signal completely, it is necessary to apply additional filtering.
3(c). 18) Xwd+ (ω ) and Xwd− (ω ) are the spectra of the down-converted wanted signal located at positive and negative frequencies, respectively. The same is valid for the spectra Xid+ (ω ) and Xid− (ω ) of the down-converted image signal. 1. 13) are fulfilled, it is clear that the amplitude spectrum of the down-converted image signal (Xid (ω )) is on top of the amplitude spectrum of the down-converted wanted signal (Xwd (ω )). This is shown in Fig. 3(c). 3 Image rejection As mentioned, the image problem in front-ends is very serious.