By Thomas M. Bell (Auth.)
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Extra resources for An Introduction to General Virology
S. , Edinburgh & London. 13. Morgan, J. , Morton, H. , Parker, R. C. (1950) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 73, 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. TISSUE CULTURES 35 14. Eagle, H. (1955) Science, 122, 501. 15. Bell, T. M. (1962) Scot. Med. J. 7, 85. 16. Rowe, W. , Huebner, R. , Gilmore, L. , Parrott, R. H^ Ward, T. G. (1953) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 84, 570. 17. Bell, T. , Steyn, J. H. (1962) Brit. Med. J. 2, 700. 18. Farrell, L. , Franklin, A. , Shimada, F. , MacMorine, H. , Rhodes, A. J. (1953) Can.
Polk, A. D„ Buddingh, G. , Goodpasture, E. W. (1938) Amer. J. Path. 14,71. 2 CHAPTER FIVE TISSUE CULTURES THE history of tissue cultures is almost as old as Virology itself. Although it is nearly 40 years since Parker and Nye 1 demonstrated viral multiplication in such cultures, it is only in the last fifteen years that they have been widely used. In the early days of tissue culture, before antibiotics were discovered, stringent aseptic procedures were necessary to prevent contamination with bacteria and fungi.
Lines formed by the heterologous virus suspensions indicate the presence of antigens common to both viruses. When two antigens are completely identical a continuous line is formed, but when they are slightly different a "spur" is produced. 34»37»38 Further information can be obtained about the structure and composition of the soluble antigens by absorption of virus suspensions or antiserum, by treatment with enzymes, heat or other chemical and physical agents, or by staining the antigen/antibody complex with such stains as acridene orange.